Saturday, June 1, 2019

Understanding the Operating principle of lysimeter

Operating principle of lysimeter
Water is added to the crop daily or every two days interval according to the irrigation interval. The
lysimeter is weighed after the irrigation and reweighed before the next irrigation action in order to
determine the amount of water containing crop due ET. The difference or reduction in the weight is the
water lost due to evaporation. Depth of water lost can be determined from the following equations
Recall that
Pw = Ma Where: Pw = density of water (g/cm3)
Vw Ma = mass of water loss (g)
Vw = volume of water loss due to ET(m3 or L)
Vw = Mw ETc = crop evapotranspiration
Pw Ab = area of the container
ETc = crop evapotranspiration in mm/day
ETc = Vm
Non-weighing lysimeter: This may be usually floating method using liquid. Reduction in the volume of
water is due to water lost. 2. EVAPORATION PAN
The pan that is use for measuring the evaporation rate is called Class A evaporation pan or simple class A
pan. The pan has a diameter of 1.2m and a depth of 250mm (0.25m) and it is usually placed in 150mm
above the ground on a wooden support as shown in the following figures. Evaporation should be located in open space which must not be under vegetation. Water is filled to
200mm level to touch the fixed point gauge. Operation principles or operation
1. Fill the evaporation pan to the level of the pointer on the first day. 2. On the second day after 24 hours. Use a 1000c (1 litre) to add the water to the evaporation pan
continuously to reach the arrow pointer. 3. Determine the total volume that added to reach the pointer. 4. Determine the area of the evaporation pan (A = πd
5. Divide the volume of the water added by the area to get the depth of the water lost due to
6. The depth of water lost per day is the evaporation occurred per day (mm/day)
i.e Epan = Volume
Area of the pan
To convert the evaporation that occurred per day to evapotranspiration ET is by multiplying by a
factor called pan coefficient which varies from 0.70 to 0.75 depending on the relative humidity
(RH) of the location. Other factors influencing the pan coefficient are the location of the pan, surrounding of the ground cover, the distance of the place of measurement from the pan and the
climate particularly the RH. Reference evapotranspiration (ET0) from class A evaporation pan is
ET0 = Kp.Epan
Where ET0 = reference evapotranspiration (mm/day)
Kp = pan coefficient
Epan = pan evaporation (mm/day)
Subtract the depth of water added by rainfall from evaporation pan
Class- A evaporation pan or evaporation pan
Evaporation pan
Evaporation pan with the arrow points.
Example on evaporation pan
A measuring glass cylinder of 1 litre is used to fill the evaporation pan of an internal diameter of 1.2m to
the pointer gauge. The glass cylinder is fill 8 times before the evaporation is filled to the pointer gauge. If
the pan coefficient and crop coefficient of maize are 0.75 and 0.85 respectively
i. Reference evapotranspiration ET0 (mm/day)
ii. Crop evapotranspiration of maize (mm/day)
Area of evaporation pan = A pan
A pan = (A = πd
2) = 3.142 x (1.2)
2 = 1.13112m2
4 4
Volume of water added = Vpan
Vpan = 8 x 1 = 8 litres = 0.008m3
Epan = Vpan = 0.008 = 7.07264 x 10
Apan 1.13112
:- Epan = 7.073mm/day
ET0 = Kp.Epan = 0.75 x 7.03 = 5.305mm/day
ET0 = reference evapotranspiration = 5.305mm/day
ETc = Kc.ET0 = 0.85 x 5.305 = 4.51
:- ETc = 4.51mm/day
Blanney Criddle (1950) observed that the amount of water used by crops during their growing
season. It is widely used and popular because of it’s simplicity. Blanney criddle formula is expressed as: CU=KcP (0.46Tmean + 8.13)……..(1)
The original equation in british unit is given below:
CU =KTP ………. (2) in inch/day
Where for eqn (1)
CU= mean monthly consumptive use (mm/day)
Tmean = mean monthly temperature
P = monthly percent of the total day time hours of the year
Eqn (2): original formula in inch/day
T in
0F now to
0C is commonly used in Nigeria K=Ce
C = F – 32
100 180
F = 180C + 32

Review of infiltration in agriculture

Review of infiltration
Infiltration: is the process by which water enters the soil through the soil surface and becomes soil water
Infiltration rate: is the rate at which water enters the soil surface. It is a unit of mm/h or m/s which is
synonymous to unit of a velocity. Infiltration capacity: is the maximum rate at which water enter the soil at a given time. It is higher at the
beginning of the infiltration and then decreases steadily with time until a constant infiltration rate is
reached. This is called basic infiltration or steady state
Infiltration rate (mm/h)
 Cummulative infiltration: is the total amount of water that enetered the soil profile during
infiltration test (mm). instruments for measuring infiltration rate are:
(1) Ring infiltrometer
(2) Tension infiltrometer
 Presence of impeding layer inside the soil profile: layer which can impede flow of water always
retard movement of water in the soil and this will reduce infiltration rate.  Application rate: if the rainfall intensity or application rate during irrigation is less than the
saturated hydraulic conductivity or infiltration rate for a deep homogenous soil, infiltration will
continue indefinitely at a rate equal to the rainfall intensity without ponding of water on the soil
surface and no run off will occur. This means that the application rate of water during irrigation
should be less than the infiltration rate of the soil so that infiltration can occur quickly without
run off
I = aT
b + f
Factors affecting infiltration rate
1. Initial water content: dry soil has high infiltration rate at the beginning of the infiltration but
decreases as the soil wets up down the soil profile.

2. Time from the set of rainfall or irrigation: infiltration rate is relatively high at first but decreases
over the tine and eventually reached the constant rate called steady state infiltration rate. 3. Hydraulic conductivity of soil: the higher the saturated hydraulic conductivity of the soil is, the
higher the infiltration rate of the soil and vice versa
4. Soil surface condition: when the soil surface is highly porous and open structure, the initial
infiltration will be higher than that of a uniform soil but the final infiltration rate remain constant
is it is limited by the lower conductivity of the transmission zone beneath the soil surface. The
surface crust acts as a hydraulic barrier and impeding. Where I= cumulative infiltration (mm)
T: elapsed time (min)
a, b, and f are soil constants that depend on the intake family of soil
f is usually taken as 7. We shall discuss this later in boarder design. Other terms that are important in irrigation
1. Water intake: is the movement of irrigation water from the soil surface into and through the soil. 2. Percolation: is the downward movement through the saturated or nearly saturated soil in response
to the force of gravity. 3. Seepage: is the downward movement and lateral movement of water in the soil from a source of
supply such as reservoir, river, canal to another area. 4. Deep percolation: this occur when water is added more than the water holding capacity of the soil
(field capacity) excess water will be lost. Soil profile beyond root zone by percolation. This losses
by percolation is called deep percolation
5. Irrigation frequency (irrigation interval) is the number of days between successive irrigation
during the period without rainfall. It depends on the consumptive use rate of the amount of
available water in the crop root zone. It is the function of crop, soil and climate. This means that
sandy soil must be irrigated more often than fine textured deep soil like clay. 6. Irrigation period: is the number of days that can be allowed for applying one irrigation to a given
design area during the peak consumption. Use period of crop being irrigated. Irrigation period
must not be greater than the irrigation frequency to prevent water stress. Irrigation water requirement
Irrigation requirement: is the total amount of water that must be supplied by irrigation to a disease free
crops, growing a larger field with adequate soil water and fertility for achieving full production potential
under a growing environment (Doorenbos and Pruitt, 1977) as reported by Michael (2008)
Irrigation water requirement involves determination of crops consumptive use (CCU) and water which a
soil can hold during irrigation. Consumptive use: is the sum of evapotranspiration and water that is used by plants for its
metabolic activities such as photosynthesis, transport of minerals, digestion of plant food, plant growth and structural support. The actual water that is used for metabolic processes is insufficient (very small)
because it is less than 1% of evapotranspiration. Therefore, consumptive use is approximately
evapotranspiration (ET) or assumed to be equal to evapotranspiration. Let us look at evapotranspiration. Evapotranspiration involves two terms: (1) evaporation (2) transpiration
Evaporation: is the process by which soil water changes from liquid state to vapour (gas) and it
occurs through the soil surface. Transpiration: is the process by which water leaves the living plant and enter the atmosphere
Evapotranspiration (ET): is the quantity of water transpired by plant (leaves) the plant tissue
during its growth and retained in plant tissue and moisture evaporated from the surface of the soil. Evapotranspiration is the basic water requirement in planning any irrigation project. Water must be
supplied at the required quantity and at appropriate time to avoid reduction in crop yield or total
destruction of the crop at the critical stage of crop growth. The unit of evapotranspiration is mm/day. The
average daily water use rate during the few days of the highest consumptive use (CU) of the sea is called
peak use rate. Peak period of consumptive evapotranspiration (ET) can be determined using the following
1. Lysimeter
2. Blanney-criddle formula
3. Pan- evaporation
4. Penman equation
5. Thornthwaite formula
6. Penman- monteith formula
7. FAO penman- monteith formula and other methods
1. LYSIMETER: this instrument is used for direct measurement of evapotranspiration. It is a tank
containing soil, data logger and a particular crop growing on it which Etc is to be measured. Lysimeter is isolated from the direct contact with the soil surface. It must have outlet for drainage
of excess water from the bottom of the tank (lysimeter) due deep percolation
Types of lysimeter
1. Weighing type lysimeter
2. Non-weighing lysimeter
Weighing lysimeter is usually more accurate in measuring water lost due to evapotranspiration than the
non weighing lysimeter
A sketch of lysimeter for ET measurement

Ultimate guide on Measurement of soil moisture content

Moisture content (MC): is the percentage of water present in a given sample of soil
MC = Mw/Ms(d) x 100 (1) air = Ma, water = Mw
MC = Mw/Mt x 100 (2) soil solid= Ms
Where: Mw= mass of water expelled from the soil (g)
Ms(d) = mass of soil solid/mass of ovendry soil(g)
Mt = mass of wet soil or total mass (g)
MC = moisture content(%)
Method of measuring MC are:
1. Gravimetric method: this is the most common method for determining MC in the developing
countries (Nigeria). It involves weighing a sample of wet soil on a sensitive weighing balance as
M2, empty can on weighing balance as M1 and the put the wet soil in an electric oven at 105
for 24 hours or until a constant mass is obtained as M3
MC= M2 – M3
M3 – M1
The MC obtained is percentage and must be converted to volumetric moisture content by
multiplying MC with
/Pw Pb= bulk density (g/cm3)
Pw = density of water (g/cm3)
/Pw = apparent specific gravity of soil
Bulk density: is the mass of oven dry soil per given volume of the soil sample. A core sampler which is a cylinder is used and pressed through the soil to obtain the soil sample
Volume of core sample = Vc
V= π d
Pb = Ms(d)
Pb = 4MdD = 4(M3-M1)
π d
2h π d
Moisture content in volumetric M.C (m3
/m3) = M.C x (Pb
/Pw) = M.C x
/Pw unit m3
Example: A core sampler of internal diameter 5.6cm and 7.5 cm high is forced through the soil profile. The soil sample is put into an evaporating can of 29a. the can and wet soil weighed 331g on a sensitive
weighing balance. The wet soil is then put in an electic oven for 24 hours at 105
0c. the oven dry soil
weighed 281g after 24 hours calculate:
1. Moisture content of the soil.
2. Bulk density
3. Volumetric moisture content
(Take Pw to be 1g/cm3)
V= π d
2h 3,142 x (5.6)
2 x 7.5 = 184.75
4 4
1. MC= M3 – M2 331 – 281 = 50 x 100
M3 – M1 281 – 29 252
MC = 19.84%
2. Pb = Md = M3 - M1 = 281 – 29
Vc Vc 184.75 =1.364g/cm3 = 1364kg/m3
Pb = 4(M3 – M1) = 4(281 – 29) = 1.364g/cm3
π d
2h 3.142(5.6)
2 x 7.5
3. To convert MC in % to volumetric
MC in volumetric = MC x
/Pw Pw = 1g/cm3 = 19.84 x 1.364 = 0.2706m3
Order methods for measuring moisture content:
1. Gamma ray attenuation: Reginato(1974) developed a dual energy gamma ray technique by which
changes in both soil water and bulk density can be measured. 2. Neutron moisture meter: this determine moisture content instantly at in situ. This principles is
based on the measurement of the number of hydrogen nuclei that are present in a unit volume of
soil. Radium-beryllium and americum have been used but recently americum is commonly used. The fast neutrons are entitled into soil and gradually loses energy by collision with various
atomic nuclei of hydrogen. Hydrogen is present almost in the entire soil water and it is effective
element in the soil that can slow down nuetrons. The degree of slowing down of the neutrons is a
measure of the soil water content. Tensiometer: is an instrument for measuring soil water potential. It consists of a porous ceramic cup that
is filled with water and connected to a vacuum gauge (may be connected to a mercury manometer) to
show changes in soil water content by pressure changes. In operation, the instrument is put in the soil to cover the ceramic cup or to a desired depth. Water moves
in and out of the ceramic cup with changes in soil-water. This changes the pressure of the vacuum gauge
which can read on the vacuum gauge. Tensiometer is measured in bar. It is effective only in the wet soil between 0-0.8 bar. Below this
potentials. It is unreliable.

Ultimate guide and definition of irrigation system

Irrigation is the artificial application of water to soil in order to bring soil moisture content to field
capacity level and to supplement water available from rainfall for the purpose of crop production. Irrigation may involve conservation of water during the rainy season by construction of dam (barrier)
across a stream for water storage or using the existing river as a source of water and pumping of water to
field through pipe, hose or canal for distribution of water to crop on the farm
Objectives or purpose of irrigation
1. To add water to soil that is essential for plant growth
2. To cool the soil and atmosphere in order to provide a favourable condition for plant growth
3. To wash out or dilute harmful salt in the soil by leaching. 4. To soften the tillage pan (hardpan)
5. To reduce the hazard of frost in temperate region like USA and Canada. 6. To provide crop insurance against short dry draught. Hard pan: is a hard soil layer formed in the profile (below the soil surface) due to compaction of the soil
when machine (tractor) is frequently used in the soil. The hardpan reduces the permeability of the soil to
water thereby causing water-logging of the area and hinder the root penetration of the crop through the
soil. Frost: Freezing of soil water in the temperate region and accumulation of frozen vapour on plant can
injure the plant. Problems of irrigation
Irrigation is beneficial to mankind because it allows crop production all year round. On the other hand, irrigation have some disadvantage particularly in the area where irrigation project is sited. It has some
environmental impact like; Soil degredation, flooding and causing certain diseases to where the project is
sited if not properly planned. Developed countries like USA, England, Germany, Holland, Australia
normally pay more attention to soil degredation and they normally carry out environmental impact
assessment (EIA) of an irrigation project. Soil salinity: excessive irrigation over a long period of time can increase the accumulation of salt in the
soil profile and this render the soil unproductive for crop production
Destruction of soil structure and removal of top soil that is rich in plant nutrients by run off during surface irrigation.

Flooding: it can occur during a heavy rainfall causing overflow of water from irrigation dam or failure of
dam can destroy lives and properties. Water in the dam, canal channel are breeding areas for mosquito tsetsefly, water snail and blackfly that
can cause certain diseases to man
Forms of soil moisture or soil water
1. Gravitational water: is the water that moves freely into through and out of the soil under the
influence of gravity. It is the excess water above the field capacity. It is in excess of hygroscopic
water and capillary water. 2. Capillary water: is the principal source of water for plant growth. It is in excess of hygroscopic
water which is held by molecular attraction. It dissolves the mineral nutrients in the soil for plant
growth at a reasonable pressure. 3. Hygroscopic water: this is a thin film of water held tightly to the soil particles and it is not
normally available for plant growth. This water cannot be removed by plant. The suction pressure
is greater than 31 bars. 1 atm of water= 1036cm or 76.39cm of mercury. Soil water constant
 Saturation capacity: this occurs when all the micro and macropores are filled with water. The soil
is said to be under saturation capacity or maximum water holding capacity. The tension of water
at saturation capacity is almost zero and it is equal to free water surface. Field capacity and
permanent wilting point were formerly considered soil water constant but recently found
imprecise soil water constant but they are quantitatively useful terms.  Field capacity: it is the moisture content after the drainage of gravitational water has becomes
very small and the moisture content is relatively stable which can store water temporarily for
plant use. It occurs 2-3 days after the soil has been properly wetted by rain or irrigation. If water
content is determined at this period, it is said to be at it’s field capacity. Field capacity depends on
soil texture, organic matter in the soil, layers of impediment in the soil profile, evapotranspiration
and depth of wetting in the soil profile. For instance, a coarse than fine textured soil. In fine
textured soil, the rate of internal drainage is low and it continues for many days after irrigation. Therefore, soil texture influences the field capacity. Soil layer that can impede or restrict flow of
water in the soil profile will increase the field capacity. Organic matter when added to the soil increases the water holding capacity of soil and this will modify the field capacity. N.B: Percentage of organic matter in the soil vary from place to place and from time to time.
 When evapotranspiration is high, more water is removed from the soil after irrigation which will reduce the field capacity.

Thursday, May 16, 2019


The Friday 5th of February, 2016 Supreme Court judgment on the issue of Senate President, Bukola Saraki’s case at Code of Conduct Tribunal (CCT) got me thinking about the hey days of his administration as the executive governor of Kwara State in 2003.

The thought also brought back to my memory the episode that led to the exit of late Mohammed Lawal as the governor
of Kwara State and the emergence of Bukola Saraki as his successor. This episode is a fairy tales to remember by Kwarans who witnessed this period. It is better not
remembered and confined to history.

However, it was a fact that when Bukola Saraki took over from governor Mohammed Lawal, he set up a panel of
enquiry to investigate all Lawal’s activities as the governor with a view of finding lapses and fraudulent activities which
might have been done during his tenure either by him or his associates in order to indict him and probably prosecute him.
The investigation was thorough and intimidating that left no aspect of Lawal’s government untouched. Starting from
reversal of the appointment of permanent secretaries; to the reversal of the up-grading of traditional rulers; to the
reversal of creation of 20 additional local government areas which passed through all the constitutional laid down procedures; to the sacking of over 5000 lawfully employed
citizen of the state; to the forceful collection of over 100 commercial vehicles given out as poverty alleviation programme to people across the 16 local government areas
(The chief collector of the vehicles later use them to start his own transport business), revocation and reallocation (to his own people) of the allocation of the 250 units of 3 bedroom at Irewolede constructed by Lawal all in the name of looking for loophole to hang Lawal.

It did not end there; he still went ahead to probe all contracts awarded by the administration. The borehole
projects, the cottage hospitals, the viewing centers, the water project which includes the construction of Up Kwara Reservoir Tanks in strategic locations in the state capital.

The issue was even referred to the EFCC by Bukola for investigation. The report of EFCC eventually exonerated Lawal of any discrepancy in the project, infact, the report
commended him for doing a quality job with the project and at a lower price.
The most dramatic of all the accusation was the purchase of the 5 of his official cars as stipulated by the law which allows an out- going governor to buy out of his official cars when leaving office. Bukola Saraki alleged Lawal of stealing the vehicles even when he was fully aware that he actually
paid for the vehicles. Saraki in his usual self blew it out of proportion and a wash the press with the news of car theft
by Lawal all in the name of political vendetta. The case got messier and was dragged to the then president, Olusegun
Obasanjo who intervened in the matter pleading with Lawal to return the vehicle for peace to rein. The late governor
obliged and returned the vehicles. Bukola Saraki was even reluctant to return the cheque of Five Million Naira paid for
the cars.

Another celebrated issue that unfolded during this period was the issue of SUBEB where a recorded video was released to the press showing movement of money with a
golf car, making it look like a loot though the video did not show us where the money was moved to and where and who the supposed loot was been shared.

All the people that served in Lawal’s government were being persecuted and harassed by police or EFCC all in the name
of looking for a way to indict Lawal.
Inspite all these persecution, Lawal and his associates were exonerated and nothing incriminating was found to indict him or any of his associates. The man eventually died a hero in 2006.
In what look like the real intention of the Bukola’s government, a poster was made with Lawal’s picture in handcuff and pasted in all the nooks and crannies of the state capital.

With all these intimidations and harassments, Lawal was calm and refuse to be drawn into war of words till his demise but with that calmness, it is logical to assume that he was wishing Bukola what he wished him.

That may not be too far from the fact because the latest Senate Presidents ordeal with the code of conduct tribunal,
one will not but amazed that someone who was chasing his predecessor could have almost at the same time perpetrating how he will defraud the state pretending to be
Subsequent events that unfolded during his 8 years tenure said much about his sincerity with the common man in the
state. All the projects he embarked on left more doubt in the minds of kwarans than that of Lawal. Any project above N50m
are executed by Bukola or late Baba Saraki The Shonga Farm project with over 1 billion naira of the state was expended on some foreigners from Zimbabwe or South Africa.
 Today, no one can point to one single benefit the project brought to the state. The bridge constructed in the post office area was even more of a problem to the people not to think of the reviewed to tripple
amount it gulped. Or millions of kwarans money sunk in to the reticulation of water pipe and permanent monthly supply of
ALUM bu laolu Saraki, did not see the light of the day or why do we still experience acute water shortage in the state today? Or the planting of flowers by WALE AKINKUGBE, with a lot of money
when ordinary people in the state could not even afford 3 square meals in a day. Construction of cargo shield BY WALE
BABALAKIN at the airport, aviation college, KWASU by CHAVET, company
brought by OTUNBA OJORA, the father of Bukola's wife, Toyin Sataki and football academy were not bringing in the expected income or how do we explain the
present economic situation where the state do not have money to pay salaries and reeling in debt?
As if that was not enough, during the twilight of his administration in 2011, he hurriedly made his rubber stamp
house of assembly to pass an obnoxious law allowing him to enjoy certain benefit as he was leaving the seat. The
content of the bill was that the state government will build a house each for him in Ilorin and Abuja, buying of cars for
him, paying for his medical bills, enjoy monthly allowance package worth 100 million naira etc.

One will now be wondering why someone who was chasing his predecessor for just 5 cars arranged this kind of benefits for himself.

When the issue of Code of Conduct Tribunal (CCT) came up in June last year after he became the senate president, I
was of the opinion that it was only a political blackmail and that he will just walk in there and explain things. But when
he first refused to appear and started jumping from one court to another, I began to wonder if it could be true. When he was finally docked in a live broadcast, someone called me and asked me if am watching. Then it was dawn on me that this was exactly what Bukola had wished to do for
Lawal back in 2003. Really, what comes around goes around.

The Supreme Court’s judgment has given the senate president the opportunity to clear his name once and for all
just like Late Lawal did when he was being chase by the senate president. If the judgment had been the other way, he
may not get the opportunity to prove his innocence. My
advice to him is to stand for the trial and tell the whole world and doubting Thomases like me that he is not guilty.
Finding political solution may not clean the mess.

KWARANS, be wise and demand for the repatriation of kwara stolen money by Bukola Saraki.

Monday, May 13, 2019

How to Get short term loans with Bad credit

Do you need short-term loans but have bad credit? Learn some of the best ways to get short-term loans even with bad credit quickly.

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This is another great option that has interest rates ranging between 17.46 percent to 35.99 percent. If you are successful, funds will be provided to you in the next working day. You must be above 18 years alongside an annual income of $20,000 in order to qualify and have a functional bank account.
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If your credit is bad, your interest rate will not get higher than 35.99 percent which is quite low in comparison to other products for debts for those with bad credit. There is no slated minimum credit score for eligibility. Also, there is an online tool offered that lets you see the loan products you are eligible for without having an impact on your credit score.

Best Site to Buy Facebook Followers in 2019

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Interested? Then do read on to learn more.
Table of Content
Table of Content
BuyReal Marketing
Pros & Cons of Buying Facebook Followers

Best Sites to Buy Facebook Followers in 2019
BuyRealMarketing – Best Place to Buy Facebook Followers
This social media marketing company offers a platform through which its customers can improve their social media presence. The boosting services it offers encompass a significant number of social networks such as Facebook, Instagram, YouTube, and Twitter. Operating out of Mabolo Cebu City, Philippines-based Company Clicking Labs serves as the parent company of BuyRealMarketing.

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Quality Rate
Delivery Rate
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There is a limited 60-Day money back guarantee
They provide services on popular social networks including Instagram, Facebook, Twitter, and YouTube
Ability to help customers gain a large number of followers in a short time

Violation of the Twitter Terms of Service by requesting login information of customers
Almost impossible to get in touch with a customer support representative despite being available 24/7

For a company that sells view, comments, and likes on social media networks, BuyRealMarketing does a great job and is one of the best places to buy facebook followers. The company can effectively get more followers on popular social networking sites in a short time.

There is also a limited 60-Day Money-back guarantee if there are no improvements to the social media account of a client.
Nonetheless, there are a few issues with the services of the company. A noticeable problem with the services is the use of fake accounts to increase the number of followers on the social media account of the client. The customer support services of the company are unresponsive which is inconvenient for those who intend to get a solution to a problem.

If you decide to buy any of the services which the company offers, the limited 60-Day Money Back guarantee is a great option to have in case you are not pleased.

During the initial launch of Subpal, its services were limited to YouTube. It provided sub4sub services on YouTube. Mr.Insta, which is the Instagram arm of the company, was launched a year after. To ensure that there is no sign of the activities of the company, the delivery of followers is gradual. This also prevents any issue with Instagram.

The services of Mr. Insta help clients gain active users and also improve their credibility on various platforms. Clients who choose to answer surveys will also be eligible to receive free followers on Instagram. Mr. Insta also includes Spotify, Pinterest, and SoundCloud services.

Despite the short window which the company provides for clients to request a refund, it is possible to request a refund past this window. In this case, there will be a review of the clients account to determine they are eligible for a refund and the amount.

Social networks which are supported by Subpals include;

Subpals provides services like;

YouTube views
YouTube likes
YouTube subscribers
Instagram followers
Instagram likes
Facebook followers
Facebook likes
YouTube shares
YouTube comments
Pinterest likes
Pinterest followers
SoundCloud Plays
SoundCloud Downloads

Quality Rate
Delivery Rate
Retention Rate

Types of payment

The following are acceptable types of payment on Subpals:
Credit cards
Cryptocurrencies such as Bitcoin

Taking a survey or subscribing to another user can earn you free likes, views, followers, or subscribers on the platform
The growth of followers appears to be more natural as it is done naturally

The window for requesting a refund is very short
Reaching the customer support of the company can be difficult


Unlike most companies which offer multiple channels through which customers can get in touch with customer support, Subpals offers only one channel. This channel is a contact form which can take a lot of time to find on the website.
Although the operations of the company are legit, there are lots of complaints regarding the free services which are available to their users.

 If you are opting for the paid services, there are various packages starting from as low as 50 YouTube subscribers to as many as 1000 subscribers. The packages differ for each social network.

If you are looking to get a paid social media marketing service which is cheap, safe, and assures you of quality, then Subpals is an excellent option. It is a viable option if you are willing to overlook the fact that there is a limited refund policy and no replacement warranty. is a social media marketing platform which offers a large number of services. These include Twitter followers, Instagram followers, YouTube views, and Facebook likes. Although the services of the company are quite reliable, they are more expensive than most of the packages which are on offer by other companies.

The company became very popular for its Facebook likes services but has been able to expand into other popular social media platforms and now offers services which are consistently of high quality. There is a contact form available on the website through which users can reach the customer support services.
Most customers often comment on the high cost of the packages which offers its users. This is a key reason why a lot of users are opting for other service providers.
Supported networks
The website supports networks which include:

Services provided
The website supports the following services:

Facebook shares
YouTube views
Instagram likes
Facebook likes
YouTube likes
Instagram followers
Facebook follows
YouTube comments
Instagram comments
Twitter followers
YouTube subscribers
YouTube dislikes
Quality rate
Delivery rate

Retention rate


Type of payment
American Express

A new drip-fed likes services which offer a slow and natural growth of page fans on a monthly basis

The followers have complete profiles and pictures
The delivery of the services is usually within the agreed timeframe

The pricing on the packages are quite expensive
Getting in touch with customer support is only through a contact form on the website

Conclusion has a more professional outlook which is noticeable in the arrangement and appearance of the site. It is also one of the few social media marketing companies which are quite popular and has managed to retain a good reputation among its clients.

With packages which offer up to a million likes, it is easy to see the reason why it is quite popular. Nonetheless, the services come at a cost which is a lot higher in comparison to most other sites offering the same package. The use of only a contact form in reaching the customer support service is also an issue for most clients. The company has a US Facebook likes package which is expensive, and it also lacks in the area of free targeting

Regardless of the popularity and professionalism of, there are a lot of other companies which similar services at a much lower price.


FastLyyke has been running since 2009 and has provided services to more than 60,000 individuals ever since.

The company claims to understand the requirement for popularity and works in the same line by providing organic and high-quality followers to your Instagram page.

When you purchase instant followers with this company, they also aid you in developing and maintaining your fan base all through the period. The company also ensures it delivers even the largest of orders as quickly as possible.

You are privy to lots of real and genuine followers from a host of functional Instagram accounts. In just a few minutes of purchasing the service, you will observe your new followers' graph rising up.

With the 24/7 customer support the company provides, you can be sure there will be someone always available to listen to your issues and proffer solutions.

There is also a money-back guarantee which lasts for 60 days which is useful if you are not satisfied with the services. You will be able to get a complete refund. With top of the line security, you can rest assured that all of your details are in safe hands and will not be accessed by any unauthorized party.
Supported Networks
The website supports networks which include:
Sound Cloud

Services provided

Fastlyyke offers the following services for the Networks above. They include:


Quality Rate
Delivery Rate
Retention Rate

Type of Payment
For payment, you will be able to utilize popular payment methods like:
American Express

Availability of 24/7 customer support
Fast delivery
100 percent Money back guarantee
Active and Real followers

There have been no complaints as regards this product

With the ability to support a variety of networks, provision of real and active followers, 24/7 customer availability and a host of others, Fastlykke is undoubtedly a great platform to consider.
They also provide a quick delivery rate which means your followers begin to increase moments after you make your purchase which can be an issue for lots of other providers which can take as much as a week for large orders.
Asides from purchasing followers, you will also be able to buy comments, likes, views, and a host of others.
 If you want to buy followers and get more visibility for your business page and you want something that is affordable and cheap, then look no further.

Kingdom likes
Kingdomlikes operates in a manner different from the others on this list. It works via the exchange of social actions. This means that you will announce your YouTube Video, Instagram Photo, FaceBook page among others and other users of the platform will offer you a like if they fancy your content.

If you desire to announce any of your websites or platforms on Kingdomlikes, you will require POINTS. These points will let other users give you likes and watch your content. This way, you will be sure that those engaging your posts or page are real individuals from KingdomLikes.

The platform lets you look and decide the page you want to view, follow, subscribe or like. You will also be able to skip sites you do not have an interest in.
Supported Networks
The website supports networks which include:

Services provided

Fastlyyke offers the following services for the Networks above. They include:

Video Likes
Facebook Post/Photo Likes
Facebook Post/Photo Shares

Quality Rate
Delivery Rate
Retention Rate

Type of Payment
For payment, you will be able to utilize popular payment methods like:
Credit Card
American Express
Discover Network

Active and real followers who have an actual interest in what you offer
Lots of supported social media networks
It lets you like or follow only pages you have an interest in

You need to put in some work. Followers do not automatically come in after payment
There have been complaints of inadequate YouTube videos to watch for points

Kingdomlikes supports a vast range of social media platforms. The options are so much that you are likely to find one you can take advantage of to aid in your marketing and promotional efforts. It is an excellent choice if you are looking for something more diverse and different from the usual method of purchasing followers.
The followers you get from this platform are real individuals who are users of the platform as well and have a genuine interest in the content you are advertising.  What is more, it gives you control as regards who to view, follow, like, or subscribe to. You will also be able to skip pages that you have no interest in.
The website does not ask for the username or passwords of any of your social network accounts so you can be sure there will be no spammy updates from your account.

Pros & Cons of Buying Facebook Followers
There are a lot of benefits associated with buying followers on Facebook. However, there are equally drawbacks to it as well.
We will be showing you both the pros and cons so you can decide for yourself if this is the right path for your business to take.
Facebook is one of the most recognized websites for social networking that will aid you in succeeding in your business. Buying followers is the best method of attaining a robust online presence. What's more, it will also assist you in getting viral marketing posts and making your sales pitch.

Purchasing followers is a less expensive option without having to spend lots of cash on marketing.
When you purchase followers, your business will benefit from the vast number of followers you get because it helps boost the visibility of your posts. You will get lots of opportunities from promotion and advertising your services and products.

When you purchase followers, you are not getting individuals who have a genuine interest in what you do. What you are buying is just numbers as most of them won't be willing to engage your posts. Also, you would probably get a massive number of fake accounts as well.

There are some apps you use in purchasing followers that use your account to send numerous messages advertising how they can help people increase followers. This is just going to get your followers infuriated and left you with a bad name.

What are the best places to buy Facebook followers?
If you are in search of great places to purchase Facebook followers, any of the websites on this list can be of help as they help you get real and active followers. You can also search the web for other services that sell Active and Real followers.

What are the Benefits of Purchasing Real and Active Facebook Followers?

When you buy real and active followers on Facebook, you are not buying just numbers. You are buying followers who have a genuine interest in your brand and what you do. This means they will be willing to engage your posts and even turn to actual clients for your business.

Does Buying Facebook Followers Work?
Yes, buying Facebook followers works if you are buying from a reputable website that sells real and active followers. It would help you increase your visibility thus letting you reach a more comprehensive amount of potential clients. It will also enhance the credibility of your business.

How Can I Buy Facebook Followers?
To buy Facebook Followers, search for your preferred vendor on the list above. Select your plan and pick your method of payment. You can equally search online for other reputable websites that can help you get real and active Facebook followers.

Marketing is an art as well as a science. For this reason, you must ensure you follow strategies that are in line with the guidelines Facebook has set in place. So when you are buying likes or followers for your Facebook page, ensure you have a complete understanding of what the vendor is selling and the long-term benefit it would have for you.
But if you are in search of a place to start your search as regards service providers, the list above can aid you in getting started and select the top site to Increase your Facebook Followers.